The NEC, standards, OSHA, NRTLs, and beyond

Codes, standards, equipment, and the organizations certifying that equipment meets a particular standard are continually changing. The harmonization of U.S. standards with...

Conductors, currents, and circuit protection–The AC side

Before we get into the details of conductors, currents, and circuit protection on the AC side of the PV system, let’s step...

Back to basics: Conductors, currents and circuit protection

For the time being, the transmission of electrical energy in a photovoltaic (PV) electrical power system requires that the various components be hardwired. Followers...

Back to basics: PV volts, currents, and the NEC

In the beginning. And He said, “Let there be Light” and there was light. Some millennia later, man invented the photovoltaic (PV) cell to convert that...

What inspectors do when it’s too bad to go outside

'Twas a dark and stormy night. The rain was pouring down, the wind was swirling around the house, and thunder and lightning were much...

Getting Down and Dirty with Supply Side PV Connections

Continuing decreases in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) power systems have resulted in residential and commercial PV systems that are increasing in size and...

Overcurrent Protection and Disco Oddities

The two previous articles in this series covered how currents are developed and handled in PV systems and how the ampacity of conductors is...

Dealing with Currents in PV Systems — Just a little more...

In the previous article in this series, we saw how the voltages from PV modules are affected by the environment and how the National...

PV Modules Part 2. Calculations, This Won’t Hurt—Much

DC Modules Output varies.  As addressed in the previous article in this series, the direct current output of a dc PV module varies with the...

PV MODULES, Part 1 — What the AHJ Needs to Know,...

The Physics of the PV module. (Seasoned electrical authorities having jurisdiction (AHJs) may skip the section.) Photons (solar energy from sunlight) hit a PV module and...