Load Side PV Connections

Through the exceptional efforts of the members of NFPA NEC Code-Making Panel 4 working with the proposals and comments that were submitted for the...

Supply-Side PV Connections: A Closer Look

Plan reviewers and inspectors throughout the country are seeing increasing numbers of supply-side connected utility interactive photovoltaic (PV) power systems . This article will...

A Closer Look at Batteries

Energy storage systems, in the form of batteries, when included in a photovoltaic power system are a critical and important item that needs close...

Gray Areas in PV and the Code

The National Electrical Code, even though it is now almost 900 pages long, cannot specifically define every particular piece of equipment and every installation requirement...

Batteries in PV Systems

Electrical power outages are becoming more common in recent times with man-made and natural disasters, and the aging utility infrastructure. With natural disasters such...

PV Systems in Unusual Locations, To Inspect or Not?

In the normal workday, inspectors may drive pass numerous PV systems that are not located on a dwelling or a commercial building and are...

Inspectors Rejoice! At Last — Significant Progress in a PV Standard

Most inspectors don’t have or have not read the UL Standards related to PV systems, because the standards are expensive and do not relate...

The Conductors, Getting Solar Energy to the Inverter for 40–50 Years

Harsh Environment—No Maintenance PV modules may be generating energy for 40–50 years after installation. While power production may not be what it was when the...

Microinverters and AC PV Modules Are Different Beasts

Microinverters and AC PV modules are becoming very common in residential and small commercial PV systems. See photos 1 and 2. They have even...

More Questions from Inspectors Numerous PV Systems Pose Issues

Photovoltaic (PV) systems prices continue to drop and inspectors are getting numerous requests for inspections. The questions that I receive indicate that this is...