### Grounding and Bonding

In this article, we will discuss the fundamentals of bonding and grounding. To start, we should get an understanding of the difference between bonding...

### Renew our Effort on Basics

Well here we are at the close to yet another year and as always our success can be measured by all of the great...

### Ohm’s Law…the Relationship between Voltage, Current and Resistance

Theory Terms and Definitions The following definitions relate to basic electrical theory. It is important that installers and inspectors have a working knowledge of electrical...

### What Is Earthing & Why and How Do We Connect to...

The thin layer of material which covers our planet—rock, clay, chalk or whatever—is what we in the world of electricity refer to as earth. So, why do we need to connect anything to it? After all, it is not as if earth is a good conductor. It might be wise at this stage to investigate potential difference (PD). A PD is exactly what it says it is: a difference in potential (volts). In this way, two conductors having PDs of, say, 20 and 26 V have a PD between them of 26 and 20 V. The original PDs (i.e., 20 and 26 V) are the PDs between 20 V and 0 V and 26 V and 0 V.

### Welcome Guide for the Proper Electrical Inspection of LED Signage

In many applications, LEDs are replacing neon as a light source for signs, causing confusion as to what is required by the NEC. Using...

### ESFI Addresses Hazards in Older Homes during National Electrical Safety Month

The National Fire Protection Association estimates that an average of 47,820 home electrical fires occur each year. These fires result in 455 civilian deaths, 1,518...

### The Terminator: Devil’s in the Details

Sometimes we have a tendency to focus on the complex and assume the basics are common knowledge. A task like terminating conductors just may...

### What is Grounding?

The Canadian Electrical Code’s long-winded definition of grounding is shown as: "a permanent and conductive path to the earth with sufficient ampacity to carry...

### Introduction to PLCs

The programmable logic controller (PLC) is a microprocessor-based system that accepts input data from switches and sensors, processes that data by making decisions in...

### Going to Basics, Maximum Fault Current

One of the most basic calculations for any power system, and arguably the least understood and most misrepresented, is the calculation of available fault...