Proposed Changes for the 2002 NEC, Part III

This is the final segment in the series of articles covering a number of proposed changes for the 2002 National Electrical Code.

Article 400 – Flexible Cords and Cables

400-22. Grounded-Conductor Identification.
Proposal No. 6-192:
The provisions for identifying the conductor intended for use as the grounded conductor in flexible cords have been revised by deleting the term “natural” before the word “gray.” The term “natural gray” is not a generally defined term in the industry.


Proposal 6-197:
A new section has been added to require the outer covering of flexible cords and cables to be flame retardant.

Article 406 – Receptacle, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps)

Article 406.
Proposals 2-18 and 18-70:
A new article entitled “Receptacle, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps)” has been added to include material covering receptacles, cord connectors and attachment plugs that was previously located in Part L of Article 410. This new article also includes material that was previously located in 210-7. A task group of CMP-18 recommended the relocation of this material as part of the overall effort to make the Code more user friendly. This is an attempt to locate rules covering this type of equipment in a common area.

Article 410 – Lighting Fixtures, Lampholders, Lamps, and Receptacles

Article 410.
Proposal Nos. 18-4 and 18-70:
The title of Article 410 has been revised to read “Lighting Fixtures, Lampholders, and Lamps.” This proposed change was initiated by a task group of CMP-18. Material previously in Part L of Article 410 was relocated to a new Article entitled “Receptacles, Cord Connectors, and Attachment Plugs (Caps).” The result is a separation of the material previously located in Article 410. Those rules remaining in Article 410 will relate to lighting, whereas provisions in the new Article 406 will apply to receptacles, cord connectors and attachment plugs. This arrangement should make it easier to locate and use the applicable rules.

410-14(a). Connection of Lighting Fixtures.
Proposal No. 18-19:The title of 410-14 and the first sentence of 410-14(a) have been revised by deleting the wording “electric discharge.” The title of 410-14(a) is “Independent of the Outlet Box” and the first sentence of (a) is “Lighting fixtures supported independently of the outlet box shall be connected to the branch circuit through metal raceway, nonmetallic raceway, Type MC cable, Type AC cable, Type MI cables, Type NM cable, or for an individual fixture, by flexible cord as permitted in Section 410-30(b) or (c).” The deletion of “electric discharge” expands the application of this rule to include lighting fixtures other than electric discharge type.

410-16(a). Outlet Boxes.
Proposal No. 18-26:
This section has been revised by deleting the wording “…weighing 50 lb (22.7 kg) or less.” from the first sentence and deleting the entire second sentence which reads “A fixture that weighs more than 50 lb (22.7 kg) shall be supported independent of the outlet box unless the outlet box is listed for the weight to be supported.” This action correlates with that taken on Proposal 9-36. Rules associated with outlet boxes fall within the jurisdiction of CMP-9 and are more appropriately located in Article 370.

410-18(b), Exception.
Proposal No. 18-28:
A new exception was added to read: “When replacing a luminaire, it shall be permitted to connect an equipment grounding conductor from the outlet in compliance with Section 250-130(c). The lighting fixture shall then be grounded in accordance with 410-18(a).” The new exception applies only where a luminaire is being replaced and the circuit supplying the fixture does not include an equipment grounding conductor. Where those conditions exist, the same rules in 250-130(c) that apply to receptacle replacement and branch circuit extension apply. Under these conditions, an equipment conductor is permitted to be run from the outlet supplying the luminaire to one of the five locations stated in 250-130(c).

410-56(a). Receptacles.
Proposal No. 18-34:
Existing 410-56(a) has been revised in title and text and relocated as 406-2(b). The new 406-2(b) will read: “(a) Rating. Receptacles and cord connectors shall be rated not less than 15 amperes, 125 volts, or 15 amperes, 250 volts, and shall be of a type not suitable for lampholders.”

This revised wording provides a clearer rule on the rating of cord connectors.

410-57(b). Wet Locations.
Proposal No. 18-43:
Existing 410-57(b) has been revised and relocated in Article 406. New text was added as 406-8(b)(1) and text previously identified under 410-57(1) and (2) have been re-identified as (a) and (b) respectively under a new 406-8(b)(2). The wording in 406-8(b)(1) will now read: “(1) 15- and 20-ampere outdoor receptacles. 15- and 20- ampere, 125- and 250-volt receptacles installed outdoors in a wet location shall have an enclosure that is weatherproof whether or not the attachment plug cap is inserted.” The new wording in 406-8(b)(2) reads: “Other receptacles. All other receptacles installed in a wet location shall comply with (a) or (b) below:” The wording in (a) and (b) under 406-8(b)(2) is the same as found in 410-57(b)(1) and (2). This change provides clearer guidance as to the weatherproof conditions for cord cap connection to outdoor receptacle whether or not they are attended and unattended while in use. This change also provides information regarding voltage and ampere rating of the receptacles under consideration.

Article 422 – Appliances

Proposal No. 20-6:
The wording “or listed instantaneous water heaters” has been added following “stamped vessel.” It will now read “Water heaters and steam boilers employing resistance-type immersion electric heating elements contained in an ASME-rated and stamped vessel or listed instantaneous water heater shall be permitted to be subdivided into circuits not exceeding 120 amperes and protected at not more than 150 amperes.” This change will permit listed instantaneous water heaters to follow the rule in this section on subdividing circuits as allowed for the other types of water heaters in ASME-rated and stamped vessels.

422-47. Water Heater Controls.
Proposal No. 20-11a:
This section has been revised to read: 422-47. Water Heater Controls. All storage or instantaneous-type water heaters shall be equipped with a temperature-limiting means in addition to its control thermostat to disconnect all ungrounded conductors. Such means shall be:

(1) Installed to sense maximum water temperature; and

(2) Either a trip-free, manually reset type or type having a replacement element.

Such water heaters shall be marked to require the installation of a temperature and pressure relief valve.

Exception No. 1: Storage water heaters that are identified as being suitable for use with supply water temperature of 82 degrees C (180 degrees F) or above and a capacity of 60 kW or above.

Exception No. 2: Instantaneous-type water heaters that are identified as being suitable for such use, with a capacity of 4 L (1 gal) or less.

FPN: See ANSI Z21.22-1999/CSA 4.4-M99, Relief Valves for Hot Water Supply Systems.””

This revised wording should more correctly state the intended rules for this section and make the intent clearer.

422-62. Appliances Consisting of Motors and Other Loads.
Proposal No. 20-18:
This section was restructured and reworded to better clarify the intent of the section. The addition of the title of (A) “Nameplate Horsepower Markings” and (B) “Additional Nameplate Markings” make this section easier to follow. The new wording in 422-62(A) adds needed information for this section. The wording in 422-62 (a) and (b) in the 1999 NEC was revised and located as subsections under (B) Additional Nameplate Markings. The revised section will now read:

422-62. Appliances Consisting of Motors and Other Loads.
(A) Nameplate Horsepower Markings. Where a motor-operated appliance nameplate includes a horsepower rating, that rating shall not be less than the horsepower rating on the motor nameplate. Where an appliance consists of multiple motors, or one or more motors and other loads, the nameplate value shall not be less than the equivalent horsepower of the combined loads, calculated in accordance with Section 430-110(c)(1).

(B) Additional Nameplate Markings. Appliances,

other than those factory-equipped with cords and attachment plugs with nameplates in compliance with Section 422-60, shall be marked in accordance with (1) and (2).

(1) Marking. In addition to the marking required in Section 422-60, the marking on an appliance consisting of a motor with other load(s) or motors with or without other load(s), shall specify the minimum supply circuit conductor ampacity and the maximum rating of the circuit overcurrent protective device. This requirement shall not apply to an appliance with a nameplate in compliance with Section 422-60 where both the minimum supply circuit conductor ampacity and maximum rating of the circuit overcurrent protective device are not more than 15 amperes.

(2) Alternate Marking Method. An alternate marking method shall be permitted to specify the rating of the largest motor in volts and amperes, and the additional loads(s) in volts and amperes, or volts and watts in addition to the marking required in Section 422-60. The ampere rating of a motor 1/8 hp or less or a nonmotor load 1 ampere or less shall not be required to be marked unless such constitute the principal load.

Article 424 – Fixed Electric Space-Heating Equipment

424-44(g). Ground Fault Circuit-Interruption Protection for Heated Floors of Bathrooms, and in Hydromassage Bathtub, Spa, and Hot Tub Locations.
Proposal Nos. 20-27 and 20-28:
(g) Ground-Fault Circuit-Interruption Protection for Heated Floors of Bathrooms, and in Hydromassage Bathtub, Spa, and Hot Tub Locations. Ground-fault circuit-interrupter protection for personnel shall be provided for electrically heated floors in bathrooms, and in hydromassage bathtub, spa, and hot tub locations.

This section now requires a ground-fault circuit-interrupter (GFCI) protection for personnel on all electrically heated floors in bathrooms, and in hydromassage bathtub, spa, and hot tub locations regardless of the type of flooring or heating cables.

Article 430 – Motors, Motor Circuits, and Controllers

430-32. Continuous-Duty Motors.
Proposal No. 11-31:
The text of 430-34 and its FPN were relocated as 430-32(C), 430-32 was restructured, and references included within the section were revised. This change was made to locate motor overload requirements in one section. Section 430-34 appeared to be a modification of the provisions in 430-32(a) and is more appropriately located in that section.

430-34. Selection of Overload Relay (Relocated as 430-32(C).
Proposal No. 11-36:
The wording “sensing element or setting of” and “sensing elements or incremental settings” has been added and the new section will now read: “Selection of Overload Relay. Where the sensing element or setting of the overload relay selected in accordance with 430-32(a)(1) and 430-32(b)(1) is not sufficient to start the motor or carry the load, higher size sensing elements or incremental settings shall be permitted to be used, provided the trip current of the overload relay does not exceed the following percentage of the motor nameplate full-load current rating.” The change should give a clearer understanding of the permitted increase in the sensing element of overload relays. This modified section has been relocated as 430-32(C).

Proposal No. 11-45:
The provision under (c) Other Group Installations that reads: “(3) Each circuit breaker is one of the inverse time type and listed for group installation,” was changed to read, “(3) Each circuit breaker shall be listed and be of the inverse time type.” It was contended that performance requirements of circuit breakers in UL 489 are the same for HACR type as they are for other types.

430-53(d). Single Motor Taps.
Proposal No. 11-46:
A new tap rule has been added to this section to cover conductors supplying specific manual motor controllers. It permits conductors sized at not less than 1/10 the rating of the short-circuit and ground-fault protective device on their supply side to feed listed manual motor controllers that are marked “Suitable for Tap Conductor Protection in Group Installations.” Reference was made to developments being made in UL 508.

430-62(a). Specific Load.
Proposal No. 11-48:
The first paragraph in 430 was revised by deleting the wording “shown in” and adding “in accordance with Section 430-52 and” following “device” and before “Table 430-152.” This change makes it clearer that the “maximum permitted value” for the branch circuit device is required to comply with Table 430-152 as modified by 430-52. Exception No. 1 of 430-52(c) permits the value to be rounded up to the next larger size. Exception No. 2 provides for an increase in the Table 430-152 value where the device selected according to 430-52(c), Exception No. 1 is not sufficient for starting the motor.

430-62(a). Specific Load.
Proposal No. 11-50:
A new exception has been added to read: “Exception No. 2: Where the feeder overcurrent protective device also provides overcurrent protection for a motor control center the provisions of 430-94 shall apply.” This change should resolve any apparent conflict with the provisions in 430-94.

430-63. Rating or Setting – Power and Light Loads.
Proposal No. 11-51:
This section was revised by adding “and service” after “feeder” and by adding the wording “or a single motor comprised of a hermetic refrigerant motor-compressor, the rating permitted by Section 440-22″ following “…permitted by Section 430-52.” A new exception similar to the one added in 430-62(a) was added to read: “Exception. Where the feeder or service overcurrent protective device provides the overcurrent protection for a motor control center the provisions of 430-94 shall apply.”

430-83(a)(3). General.
Proposal No. 11-57a:
A new 430-83(a)(3) was added to read: “Molded Case Switch. A molded case switch rated in amperes shall be permitted as a controller for all motors, including Design E.” This new text recognizes that molded case switches can be used as motor controllers as is similarly permitted for circuit breakers in 430-83(a)(2).

Article 500 -Hazardous (Classified) Locations, Classes I, II, and III, Divisions 1 and 2

Article 500.
Proposal No. 14-2a:
Article 500 has been reorganized and revised to provide a more logical order, to address classification of locations and material groups, to cover equipment including protection techniques, and to provide information on equipment marking, design, and approval. Technical and editorial changes accepted in other proposals have also been included in the revised text. This change also includes a number of new definitions.

Article 527 – Temporary Wiring

Article 527. Temporary Installations.
Proposal No. 3-141:
Former Article 305 entitled “Temporary Wiring,” has been renumbered as Article 527 and re-identified as “Temporary Installations.” Provisions in this article are more extensive in nature than covered by the title of Chapter 3, “Wiring Methods and Materials.” The article is more appropriately located in Chapter 5.

Article 550 – Mobile Homes, Manufactured Homes, and Mobile Home Parks

Article 550.
Proposal 19-37:
The article was extensively rewritten to incorporate the requirements of NFPA 501 for manufactured homes. The document will become the basis for the HUD Part 3280 rules and will be the primary construction standard for manufactured housing.

Article 555 – Marinas and Boatyards

Article 555.
Proposal 19-135:
Article 555 has been totally rewritten. It incorporates existing NEC rules and physical installation rules from NFPA 303.

Article 647 – Sensitive Electronic Equipment

Article 647.
Proposal No. 15-72:
A new Article 647, entitled “Sensitive Electronic Equipment,” has been added and the scope covers “…commercial and industrial occupancies where the use of sensitive electronic equipment is connected to a separately derived system operating at 120 volts line-to-line and 60 volts to ground.”

Article 680 – Swimming Pools, Fountains, and Similar Installations

Article 680.
Proposal No. 20-30a:
Article 680 was revised extensively and reorganized in a more logical manner to make it easier use. It also includes changes made through action taken on other proposals.

Article 690 – Solar Photovoltaic Systems

690-56. Identification of Power Sources.
Proposal No. 3-194:
A new section was added to cover identification requirements for photovoltaic power systems supplying buildings or structures. This section specifies the location and other requirements for plaques or directories required for these systems.

Article 692 – Fuel Cell Systems

Article 692. Fuel Cell Systems.
Proposal No. 3-206:
A new article has been added to cover requirements for the installation and use of fuel cells.

Article 695 – Fire Pumps

695-4(b)(1). Overcurrent Device Selection.
Proposal No. 15-88:
A new sentence was added to 695-4(b)(1) to read: “An instantaneous trip circuit breaker shall be permitted to be used as the disconnecting means and overcurrent protection and shall be permitted to be set to a maximum of twenty times motor full load current.”

695-6(d). Overload Protection.
Proposal No. 15-97:
A new exception was added to 695-6(d), Overload Protection, to read: “Exception: For on-site standby generator(s) which produce continuous currents in excess of 225 percent of the FLA of the fire pump motor, the conductors between the on-site generator(s) and the combination fire pump transfer switch controller or separately mounted transfer switch shall be installed in accordance with Section 695-6(b) or protected in accordance with Section 430-52.”

Article 725 – Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 Remote-Control, Signaling, and Power-Limited Circuits

725-2. Abandoned Cable.
Proposal 16-32:
A new definition of “Abandoned Cable” has been added to read: “Cable that is neither terminated at both ends, at a connector or other equipment, nor identified for future use with a tag.” This new definition provides an initial step in addressing the issue of abandoned cable in buildings. This proposed change is associated with that recommended for 725-3(b) for the removal of abandoned cable.

725-3(b). Spread of Fire or Products of Combustion.
Proposal 16-80:
This section was previously 725-3(a) but has been relocated as 725-3(b) and amended to read : “(b) Spread of Fire or Products of Combustion. Section 300-21. Abandoned cables not intended for future use shall not be permitted to remain.” This new provision will require cable covered by this article to be removed if it is no longer intended to be used. This same concept has also been included in other related articles in Chapters 7 and 8.

A special thanks go to the individuals serving on NEC Code Making Panels who contributed to the development of this summary of changes by providing valuable information on action taken by the panel on which they serve. This summary of proposed Code changes includes only a limited number of proposals and actions taken by Code Making Panels. A more comprehensive coverage will be included in the Analysis of the Changes in the NEC that is scheduled to be published in September 2001. That publication is expected to include over 400 Code changes, an analysis of each, and numerous graphics representations of those changes.

Philip Cox
Former IAEI Executive Director, CEO, and Editor-in-Chief for the IAEI News, Philip Cox was formerly employed with the National Electrical Manufacturers Association as a field representative covering a 17-state area. He is a member of NFPA NEC Technical Correlating Committee. He served on Code-Making Panel No. 6, representing IAEI during the Code cycles for the 1984 and 1987 editions of the NEC. He served as chairman of CMP-1, representing the National Electrical Manufacturers Association during the 1996 cycle. He served as acting chairman of CMP-1, representing IAEI for the 1999 cycle and remains as a member of that panel for the 2002 Code cycle. He is a member of NFPA Electrical Section; UL Electrical Council; ITS Technical Advisory Council; and former member of The Chauncey Group International Board of Governors for the National Certification Program for Construction Code Inspectors; and former member of the IEC United States National Committee Executive Committee. He also served as chief electrical inspector for the city of Little Rock, Arkansas, and was secretary to the Little Rock Electrical Examining Board, developing and administering examinations for master, journeyman and specialty electricians. He was appointed as electrical safety coordinator for the Arkansas Department of Labor and administered the Arkansas state electrical licensing law. Cox is past president of the Western Section, IAEI, and served on the IAEI Board of Directors as board member and fifth vice president. He has been involved in the development and presentation of IAEI training programs on both chapter and international level.